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How to Choose Container Securing Equipment and Materials?Part 1  

2013-10-07 10:05:41|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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This section of the Container Handbook deals with how to determine the maximum securing load of materials used for load securing using simple rules of thumb and explains some basic principles for practical work.
 



Steel wire ropeLashing pointSteel strap


 



Inspecting and measuring lashing equipment


 
Note: Sections in italics have been reproduced from seminar material by kind courtesy of Captain Hermann Kaps, professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Bremen.
 
 
Fundamental terms
 
kilonewton (kN) is a unit of force useful for describing for instance the breaking strength or breaking load of load securing material. It has replaced the previously common metric ton which is the unit reserved for describing mass according to the SI standard. The conversion is easily learned: 1 kN ≡ 0.1 t or 100 kg.
 
Anyone who was used to calculating mass in kilograms can use the unit decanewton (daN) as a unit of force.
 
The following English terms are in common use in maritime transport across the world.
 
Securing element is an individual item of equipment on board ship which is used for load securing, e.g. a shackle, a deck ring, a turnbuckle, chain or wire rope.
 
Securing device is a suitable combination of elements which together form a means of load securing, e.g. lashing or bracing.
 
Securing Arrangement is a reasonable arrangement of load securing means with the aim of securing a cargo item or a cargo block.
 
Breaking Load (BL) is the nominal breaking load, generally specified by the manufacturer. However, it can also be estimated using rules of thumb.
 
Maximum Securing Load (MSL) in kN, is the greatest permissible force which can be applied to a load securing element or device.
 
Calculation Strength (CS) in kN, is an arithmetic force determined by reducing the MSL by the formula: CS = MSL / 1.5. CS values are only used to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements as per Annex 13 of the CSS code.
 
The relation between Breaking Load and Maximum Securing Load is shown in Annex 13 by the following table:

 
 

MaterialMSL
Shackles, rings, deck eyes, turnbuckles of 
mild steel
50% of breaking strength
Fiber ropes33% of breaking strength
Web lashing70% of breaking strength
Wire rope (single use)80% of breaking strength
Wire rope (re-useable)30% of breaking strength
Steel band (single use)70% of breaking strength
Chains50% of breaking strength
lumber0.3 kN per cm?2; normal to the grain


Table: Determining the  MSL  from the breaking load


 
Lashing elements and lashing materials There are no international standards on tie down lashings. It is to be expected, however, that manufacturers or dealers will provide information on or certification of the nominal breaking load on purchase. It is, however, generally unclear how this value was determined and under what conditions it is valid. No reference is made to any other properties, such as elasticity and fatigue strength.
 
The table below provides a list of the most important materials and elements with the usual characteristic values. An accepted rule of thumb is used for the breaking load.

 
If millimeters are chosen instead of centimeters for the dimensions, the breaking load values will be in decanewtons [daN] instead of kilonewtons.
 
 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Natural fiber ropes (manila, sisal, hemp)6 x d?2;d = diameter of rope in cm. Natural fiber ropes are sensitive to decay, acids and alkalis. All fiber ropes are sensitive to chafing from sharp edges. Knots on synthetic fiber ropes can slip open. Heavers of sufficient thickness should be used to tighten them and these in turn should be secured to prevent them from unwinding.
Polypropylene12 x d?2;
Polyester15 x d?2;
Polyamide20 x d?2;
Hercules (sisal)6 x d?2;
Hercules (polypropylene)12 x d?2;


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Wire rope 6 x 9 + 1 FC
Wire rope 6 x 19 + 1 FC
Wire rope 6 x 37 + 1 FC
50 x d?2;d = diameter of rope in cm. Producing conventional wire rope lashings with turnbuckles and rope clips is technically demanding and can give rise to a number of potential problems. More detailed notes are provided after this table.
Wire rope 6 x 9 +7 FC
Wire rope 6 x 12 +7 FC
Wire rope 6 x 15 +7 FC
25 x d?2;


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Shackles20 x d?2;d = diameter of bolt in cm. The breaking load formula only applies to shackles made of standard strength steel.
Turnbuckles20 x d?2;d = diameter of thread in cm. The breaking load formula only applies to turnbuckles made of standard strength steel.


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Untreated steel strap
Blued steel strap
70 x w x t
85 x w x t
w = width of strap in cm
t = thickness of strap in cm.


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Long- and short-link chains with different tensionersSee manufacturer's specificationsTie down lashing chains are always made of higher strength steel to save weight. Calculation of the breaking load is therefore dependent on the manufacturer's specifications.


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Deck eyes and eye plates20 x d?2;d = diameter of eye material in cm. The breaking load formula only applies to material made of standard strength steel.


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Synthetic fiber lashing beltsSee manufacturer's specificationsLashing belts are produced in a number of different grades. They are highly elastic but can become permanently deformed when subjected to threshold stresses greater than 50% of the breaking load and therefore quickly become loose. They must not be knotted. They are sensitive to external influences in the same way as synthetic fiber ropes.


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Weld joints subjected to shear loadsMSL = 4 kN per cmSingle-layer weld, 4 mm thick.
MSL = 10 kN per cmThree-layer weld, 10 mm thick.


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Softwood used forbracingMSL = 0.3 kN per cm?2;Compressive load perpendicular to the grain
Softwood used for bracingMSL = 1 kN per cm?2;Compressive load parallel to the grain


 

Material/elementBreaking load [kN]Notes
Special equipment forro/ro ships-Trailer horses, trailer jacks, wheel chocks; breaking loads usually unknown
Special equipment for container shipsSee manufacturer's specificationsLashing rods, turnbuckles, twist locks, D rings, sockets, bridge fittings, tie plates, etc. Strength and material properties as per the requirements of the relevant classification society


 
For economic reasons, it is advisable to try to homogenize load securing equipment and load securing arrangements.

    Homogeneous load securing equipment comprises elements which where possible have the same  values.
    A homogeneous load securing arrangement comprises load securing equipment which are arranged in such a way that, when subjected to extreme loads, they bear the part of the load appropriate to their strength.

To summarize the problems of load securing, some examples are provided below as a sort of "recipe" how to calculate the number of securing devices required, what such a device can withstand and what can be expected of it.
 
 
Example: Tie-down lashing:
 



Use of tie down lashings


 
Let us assume that the wooden case on the flatrack has a weight of 12,000 daN. Without taking into account the risk of this overheight case tipping, the package must be secured for overseas shipment. Lateral acceleration forces of 0.8 g can be expected. This means that lateral forces of 12,000 daN x 0.8 or 120 kN x 0.8 i.e. 9,600 daN or 96 kN can be expected.
 
The single-use webbing belts used in the figure on the left have a breaking load of 3,433 daN. This equates to 2,403 daN at an MSL no greater than 70% of the breaking load. No more than half of this, i.e. around 1,200 daN, may be used as the pretensioning force. It should be noted that in practice this value can neither be achieved nor maintained throughout the entire voyage.
 
The effective length of the belt from its attachment to the lashing point to the edge of the case (red line) is 3.0 m. The effective height (green line) is 2.93 m, a very high vertical component (97.6%). This component can be determined for any load by dividing the effective height by the effective length. Multiplying this by the pretensioning force gives the force with which the tensioned side of the load is pulled onto the flat. In the example, this is 97.6% of 1,200 daN, or 1,171 daN. If we assume ideal conditions and this force were completely transmitted to the other side, a total pretensioning force of 2,342 daN per lashing can be assumed. Assuming a friction coefficient of 0.3, a single tie-down lashing can achieve a securing force of around 703 daN. 13.65 belts are theoretically required to secure the case (9,600 daN/703 daN). In reality, the webbing belts used would be able to maintain a maximum pretensioning force of around 100 daN through 200 daN during the voyage. This means that a single belt is able to maintain a long-term securing force of 30 daN through 60 daN. To have really "secured" the case, somewhere between 160 and 320 belts would have to be provided!!!
 
 

Note: Tie down lashings only provide 
securing forces of the vertical component of the pretensioning force multiplied by the friction coefficient.


 

Note: The pretensioning force must never be greater than 50% of theMSL 
of the weakest securing element.

This recipe is simpler and more precise than a calculation which uses the lashing angle α, since in practice distances are easier to measure than angles. If the vertical component of a lashing is to be calculated using the lashing angle, the permissible lashing force must be multiplied by the sine of the lashing angle: vertical component = MSL x sin α.
 
The smaller the lashing angle, the smaller the vertical component will be. At a lashing angle of 90° it will be 100% ( sin 90 ° = 1), at 75° 97% (sin 75 ° = 0.9659), at 60° 87 % (sin 60 ° = 0.866), at 45° 71% (sin 45 ° = 0.7071), at 30° 50% (sin 30 ° = 0.5), at 15° 26% (sin 15 ° = 0.2588) and at 0° 0% (sin 0° = 0).
 
 
Example: Direct lashing:
 
The main difference between direct lashings and tie-down lashings is that with direct lashings, the pretensioning force can and should be kept as low as possible.
 
 

Note: The pretensioning force should be as low as possible on direct lashings. However, slack must never be able to develop in lashings.


 
The pretensioning force must, however, be sufficiently high to prevent a lashing from becoming slack. The reason for this is that the lashing may be loaded up to its MSL under stress and the vertical components resulting from this produce additional frictional forces.
 


Direct lashing with chains


 
For those who enjoy mathematics, the relevant lashing forces can be calculated by first measuring the lashing angle α (47.5°) and then the sine and cosine of this angle to determine the vertical and horizontal components and using these in conjunction with the permissible lashing force of the chain.
 
Using another recipe, it is unnecessary to determine this angle or its sine and cosine. Basic arithmetic will suffice. The following lengths are determined by using a tape measure or meter rule: the effective length of the lashing chain (red line = 3.61 m), the effective vertical component (green line = 2.66 m) and the effective horizontal component (blue line = 2.44 m). Using rules of thumb or the manufacturer's specifications, the breaking load and the MSL of the 13 mm link material diameter high-tensile chain. This corresponds to 10,000 daN. Checking the size of the lashing point gives a steel diameter of 28.3 mm. This gives a breaking strength of 16,000 daN and an MSL of 8,000 daN. This value represents an upper threshold if the chain components have a higher MSL.
 
Vertical securing force: 2.66 m : 3.61 m x 10,000 daN = 7,368 daN. A lashing chain secures the package against vertical movement with a force of 7,368 daN. But this is not so important. This force becomes effective when the package is moved horizontally causing the chain to be tightened; the package is then pulled toward the floor with this force. Assuming a sliding friction coefficient of 30% (μ = 0.3), the package is secured by a lashing in all directions with a force of 7,368 daN x 0.3 = 2,210 daN.
 
Shortfall in securing force: 2.44 m / 3.61 m x 10,000 daN = 6,759 daN. A lashing chain directly secures the package laterally with 6,759 daN. To this are added the frictional securing forces of 2,210 daN as previously determined. The calculated chain lashing secures the machine component against movement laterally towards the right with a force of 8,969 daN. 
 
Since no longitudinal components exist, a chain only secures the machine component longitudinally with the frictional forces produced by the vertical component of 2,210 daN.
 


Different components on a diagonal 
lashing with lashing angles


 
To calculate the longitudinal, transverse and vertical securing forces using the lashing angles α and β, use the following method:
 
 

ComponentCalculation
Vertical componentMSL x sin α
Horizontal componentMSL x cos α
Additional frictional forcesVertical component x μ or MSL x sin α x μ
Pure lateral componentHorizontal component x sin β or MSL x cos α x sin β
Pure longitudinal componentHorizontal component x cos β or MSL x cos α x cos β


 
Since the additional frictional forces produced by the vertical component may be added to the forces produced by the lateral and longitudinal components, the securing forces produced are:
 
 

Securing forcesCalculation
Vertical securingMSL x sin α
Lateral securingMSL x cos α x sin β + MSL x sin α x μ
Longitudinal securingMSL x cos α x cos β + MSL x sin α x μ


Ijin Marine Limited exports lashing materials for timber vessel,container,ro/ro,etc in China.Not only exporting,Ijin Marine also is able to deliver lashing materials on board within China's ports.The materials contain dovetail twistlock,lashing rod,d ring,turnbuckle,slings,wire ropes,etc.Same as other products,the lashing materials can be approved by CCS,DNV,LR,ABS,KR,etc.sales@ijinmarine.com is our contact detail for your reference.





--
IJIN MARINE LIMITED-China's biggest rope and chain trader.
Agent: In 80+ countries: 
Repair, Fire-fighting, life saving, GMDSS, underwater, etc.
Supplier: Ropes, chains, 
spare parts of Chinese equipment, 
rubber packing, etc
Tel: +86-21-51699732
Web: www(dot)ijinmarine(dot)net
Mobile: +86-15026636864(24hours)
E-mail: sales(at)ijinmarine(dot)com or ijinmarine(at)163(dot)com
Add: 1001, Suncome Liauw's Plaza, No.738 Shangcheng Road, 200120, Pudong, Shanghai,China
Linkedin: Bill Jia
QQ: 66895009
Skype: bill.jia
Twitter: ijinmarine
Msn: billzjia(at)hotmail(dot)com
Register No: 1626036
Shipserv TradeNet:201579
Certificate/VAT No: 58610100-000-07-11-4

As a worldwide marine service agent, Ijin Marine Limited provides above items and other service in more than 3000 ports of 80 countries as below. Pls contact me if you have any requests.

The list of jobs Ijin attending in the past.

M/V Changhang Xianghai, Turbarao, Brazil, Ship Store Supply

M/V Changhang Bohai, Kandle, India, Motor Rewinding

M/V Changhang An Hai, Amsterdam, Netherlands Or Holland, Store Supply

M/V CF Diamond, Vancouver, Canada, Oil Tank Repair For Life Boat

M/V CF Crystol, Vancouver, Canada, Hatch Cover Repair

M/V LR Lily, Kalimantan, Indonesia, Bearing Replacement For Crane

M/V Sky Jupiter, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, Provision And Ship Store Supply

M/V Sky Oceanus, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, Provision And Ship Store Supply

M/V Msc Sentosa, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, Provision And Ship Store Supply

M/V Man Hai, Jarkata, Indonesia, Life Raft Supply

M/V Jian Hua, Point Comfert, America, Ship Store Supply

M/V Long Hua, Dong Hae, Korea, Spare Part Delivery

M/V Xin Xiang An, Karaikal, India, Ship Store Supply

M/V Xin Bo Lin 3, Mumbai, India, Ship Store Supply

M/V Hui Tong 56, Belawan, Indonesia, Boiler Repair

M/V Zhe Hai 505, Aukland, New Zealand, Fire Fighting Equipment Inspection

M/V Zhe Hai 505, Vitoria, Brazil, Life Raft Inspection

M/V Zhe Hai 505, Rotterdam, Netherlands, Ship Store Supply

M/V Zhe Hai 505, San Lorenzo, Argentina, Ship Store Supply

M/V Da Xin Hua Li Shun, Ulsan, Korea, Fire Fighting, Life Saving And Gmdss Inspection

M/V Ratna Shalini, Gdansk, Poland, Gas Detector Calibration

M/V Cleantec, Casablanca, Morroco, Ship Store Supply

M/V Chang Hang An Hai, Taichuang, Taiwan, Auxiliary Engine Repair

M/V Chang Hang An Hai, Richard Bay, Australia, Ship Store Supply

M/V Rich Sino, Junk Bay Anchorage Of Hong Kong, Underwater Hulls Inspection, Pre Purchase.

Atlantic Ocean

List of ports and harbours of the Atlantic Ocean

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Accra, Ghana

A Coru?a, Spain

Port of Albany-Rensselaer, New York, United States

Bahía Blanca, Argentina

Coronel Rosales Partido, Argentina

General Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Banana, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Barranquilla, Colombia

Belém, Brazil

Bergen, Norway

Bod?, Norway

Port of Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Botwood, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Bridgetown, Barbados

Brunswick, Georgia, United States

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Calabar, Nigeria

Cabinda, Angola

Cádiz, Spain

Port Canaveral, Florida, United States

Cape May, New Jersey, United States

Cape Town, South Africa

Port of Casablanca, Morocco

Cayenne, French Guiana, France

Charleston, South Carolina, United States

Colón, Panama

Cork, Ireland

Dakar, Senegal

Douala, Cameroon

Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States

Ferrol, Spain

Freeport, Bahamas

Freetown, Sierra Leone

Fortaleza, Brazil

Galway, Ireland

Georgetown, Guyana

Port of Hafnarfj?r?ur, Iceland

Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Hamilton, Bermuda

Hampton Roads, Virginia, United States

Harstad, Norway

Huelva, Spain

Jacksonville, Florida, United States

Lagos, Nigeria

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

Libreville, Gabon

Lisbon, Portugal

Lomé, Togo

Luanda, Angola

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea

Melford, Nova Scotia, Canada (proposed)

Port of Miami, Florida, United States

Monrovia, Liberia

Montevideo, Uruguay

Nantes, France

Narvik, Norway

Nassau, Bahamas

Port Newark, United States

Port of New York and New Jersey, United States

Paramaribo, Suriname

Pecém, Brazil

Port of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Port Everglades, Florida, United States

Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Portland, Maine, United States

Porto, Portugal

Porto Alegre, Brazil

Quequén, Argentina

Recife, Brazil

Reykjavík, Iceland

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Salvador, Brazil

San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States

Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

Port of Santos near S?o Paulo, Brazil

Port of Savannah, Georgia, United States

St. Augustine, Florida, United States

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

Sept-?les, Quebec, Canada

Setúbal, Portugal

Sines, Portugal

Stornoway, Scotland, United Kingdom

Shannon/Foynes, Ireland

St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Tangier, Morocco

Troms?, Norway

Trondheim, Norway

Port of Vigo, Spain

Vitória, Brazil

Walvis Bay, Namibia

Wilmington, Delaware, United States

Wilmington, North Carolina, United States

?lesund, Norway

Paranaguá, Brazil

S?o Francisco do Sul, Brazil

Itajaí, Brazil

Porto Velho, Brazil

Santos, Brazil

Itapoá, Brazil

Adriatic Sea

Ancona, Italy

Port of Bar, Montenegro

Bari, Italy

Budva, Montenegro

Port of Durr?s, Albania

Port of Koper, Slovenia

Port of Pescara, Italy

Port of Plo?e, Croatia

Port of Rijeka, Croatia

Sh?n Gjin, Albania

Port of Split, Croatia

Port of Trieste, Italy

Venice, Italy

Port of Vlor?, Albania

Ravenna, Italy

Monfalcone, Italy

Chioggia, Italy

Porto Marghera, Italy

Aegean Sea

Alexandroupolis, Greece

Bodrum, Turkey

Chalcis, Greece

Chios, Greece

Eleusina, Greece

Heraklion, Crete, Greece

?zmir, Turkey

Kavala, Greece

Ku?adas?, Turkey

Laurium, Greece

Mytilene, Greece

Piraeus, Greece

Rhodes, Greece

Thessaloniki, Greece

Volos, Greece

Azov Sea

Azov, Russia

Berdiansk, Ukraine

Mariupol, Ukraine

Taganrog, Russia

Yeysk, Russia

Baltic Sea

List of Ports of the Baltic Sea.

Bay of Biscay

Avilés, Spain

Bayonne, France

Burela, Spain

Port of Bilbao, Spain

Bordeaux, France

Brest, France

El Musel, Gijón, Spain

Pasaia, Spain

La Rochelle, France

Les Sables-d'Olonne, France

Santander, Spain

Black Sea

Batumi, Georgia

Bilhorod, Ukraine

Burgas, Bulgaria

Illichivsk, Ukraine

Mangalia, Romania

Midia, N?vodari, Romania

Novorossiysk, Russia

Odessa, Ukraine

Poti, Georgia

Port of Constan?a, Romania

Giurgiulesti International Free Port, Moldova

Port of Erdemir, Turkey

Port of Varna, Bulgaria

Samsun, Turkey

Sevastopol, Ukraine

Sukhumi, Georgia

Trabzon, Turkey

Yuzhny, Ukraine

Caribbean Sea

Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, France

Belize City, Belize

Bridgetown, Barbados

Port of Cabo Rojo, Dominican Republic

Cartagena, Colombia

Chetumal, Mexico

Colón, Panama

Fort-de-France, Martinique, France

La Guaira, Venezuela

Guanta, Venezuela

Guantánamo, Cuba

Kingston, Jamaica

Limón, Costa Rica

Maracaibo, Venezuela

Oranjestad, Aruba, Netherlands

Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, France

Ponce, Puerto Rico, United States

Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Port Caucedo, Dominican Republic

Port Rio Haina, Dominican Republic

Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Puerto Barrios, Guatemala

Puerto Cabello, Venezuela

Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic

Puerto Castilla, Honduras

Puerto Cortés, Honduras

Roatán, Honduras

Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Port of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Santo Tomás de Castilla, Guatemala

Willemstad, Cura?ao, Netherlands

Chesapeake Bay

Baltimore, United States

Norfolk, Virginia, United States

Salisbury, Maryland, United States

English Channel

Caen (Ouistreham), France

Calais, France

Cherbourg, France

Dieppe, France

Port of Dover, United Kingdom

Le Havre, France

Port of London, United Kingdom

Dunkerque(Duinkerken), France

Newhaven, United Kingdom

Ostend, Belgium

St. Peter Port, Guernsey, United Kingdom

Portland Harbour, United Kingdom

Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Plymouth, United Kingdom

Ramsgate, United Kingdom

Saint-Malo, France

Shoreham-by-Sea, United Kingdom

Port of Southampton, United Kingdom

Great Lakes

Port of Montreal, Canada

Buffalo, New York, United States

Burns Harbor / Portage, Indiana, United States

Port of Chicago, Illinois, United States

Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Detroit, Michigan, United States

Duluth, Minnesota, United States

Erie, Pennsylvania, United States

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

Port of Montreal, Canada

Nanticoke, Ontario, Canada

Oshawa, Ontario, Canada

Port of Oswego Authority, New York, United States

Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Two Harbors, Minnesota, United States

Toledo, Ohio, United States

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada

Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, United States

Irish Sea

Barrow-in-Furness, England

Belfast, Northern Ireland

Cairnryan, Scotland

Cardiff, Wales

Douglas, Isle of Man

Drogheda, Ireland

Dublin, Ireland

Dún Laoghaire, Ireland

Dundalk, Ireland

Ellesmere, England

Fishguard, Wales

Fleetwood, England

Garston, England

Glasgow, Scotland

Heysham, England

Holyhead, Wales

Larne, Northern Ireland

Liverpool, England

Milford Haven, Wales

Mostyn, Wales

Pembroke Dock, Wales

Rosslare Europort, Ireland

Runcorn, England

Stranraer, Scotland

Swansea, Wales

Sea of Marmara

Istanbul, Turkey

?zmit, Turkey

Tekirda?, Turkey

Mediterranean Sea

Adana, Turkey

Alexandria, Egypt

Algeciras, Spain

Al Hoceima, Morocco

Algiers, Algeria

Almería, Spain

Antalya, Turkey

Port of Ashdod, Israel

Barcelona, Spain

Bardia, Libya

Beirut, Lebanon

Benghazi, Libya

Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

Cartagena, Spain

Ceuta, Spain

Chalcis, Greece

Civitavecchia, Italy

Corinth, Greece

Datca, Turkey

Fethiye, Turkey

Genoa, Italy

Gibraltar (British Overseas Territory)

Gioia Tauro, Italy

Grand Harbour, Malta

Iskenderun, Turkey

Port of Haifa, Israel

Larnaca, Cyprus

Latakia, Syria

Leghorn, Italy

Limassol, Cyprus

Málaga, Spain

Marmaris, Turkey

Marseille, France

Melilla, Spain

Mersa Matruh, Egypt

Mersin, Turkey

Messina, Sicily, Italy

Misrata, Libya

Nador, Morocco

Naples, Italy

Oran, Algeria

Palma de Mallorca, Spain

Palermo, Sicily, Italy

Patras, Greece

Piraeus, Greece

Port Said, Egypt

Sidon, Lebanon

Tangier, Morocco

Tarragona, Spain

Tel Aviv, Israel

Thessaloniki, Greece

Tétouan, Morocco

Tripoli, Lebanon

Tripoli, Libya

Tunis, Tunisia

Valencia, Spain

Gulf of Mexico

Port of Beaumont, Texas, United States

Campeche, Mexico

Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico

Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico

Port Corpus Christi, Texas, United States

Galveston, Texas, United States

Gulfport, Mississippi, United States

Havana, Cuba

Port of Houston, Texas, United States

Intracoastal City, Louisiana, United States

Lake Charles, Louisiana, United States

Louisiana Offshore Oil Port, Louisiana, United States

Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Matanzas, Matanzas, Cuba

Port of Mobile, Alabama, United States

Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

Panama City, Florida, United States

Pensacola, Florida, United States

Plaquemines Port, Louisiana, United States

Port Fourchon, Louisiana, United States

Progreso, Mexico

Port of Tampa, United States

Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico

North Sea

List of North Sea ports

Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom

Port of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Port of Antwerp, Belgium

Blyth, England, United Kingdom

Bremerhaven, Germany

Bremen, Germany

Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge, Belgium

Cuxhaven, Germany

Delfzijl, Netherlands

Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom

Eemshaven, Netherlands

Emden, Germany

Esbjerg, Denmark

Port of Felixstowe, United Kingdom

Flotta, Scotland, United Kingdom

Port of Ghent, Belgium

Gothenburg, Sweden

Grimsby, United Kingdom

Port of Hamburg, Germany

Harwich International Port, England, United Kingdom

Immingham, England, United Kingdom

Hull, England, United Kingdom

Kristiansand, Norway

Leith, Scotland, United Kingdom

Port of London, England, United Kingdom

Middlesbrough, England, United Kingdom

Newcastle, England, United Kingdom

Oostende, Belgium

Oslo, Norway

Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands & Europoort

Stavanger, Norway

Terneuzen, Netherlands

Sullom Voe, Scotland, United Kingdom

Sunderland, England, United Kingdom

Thamesport, Isle of Grain, England, United Kingdom

Port of Tilbury, England, United Kingdom

Vlissingen, Netherlands

Wilhelmshaven, Germany & JadeWeserPort

?lesund, Norway

?resund

Copenhagen, Denmark

Helsingborg, Sweden

Malm?, Sweden

Ottawa River/Saint Lawrence River

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada

Bécancour, Quebec, Canada

Gulf of Paria

Pedernales, Venezuela

Point Lisas, Trinidad and Tobago

Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Scarborough, Trinidad and Tobago - since 1991

Tyrrhenian Sea

Civitavecchia, Italy

Naples, Italy

Livorno, Italy

Arctic Ocean

List of ports and harbours of the Arctic Ocean

Akureyri, Iceland

Arkhangelsk, Russia

Barrow, Alaska, United States

Belomorsk, Russia

Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

Dikson, Russia

Dudinka, Russia

Hammerfest, Norway

Honningsv?g, Norway

Kandalaksha, Russia

Igarka, Russia

Kirkenes, Norway

Murmansk, Russia

Naryan-Mar, Russia

Severomorsk, Russia

Tiksi, Russia

Pevek, Russia

Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, United States

Vard?, Norway

Vitino, Russia

Indian Ocean

List of ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean

Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Cochin, Kerala, India

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Port of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India

Durban, South Africa

Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia

Haldia, West Bengal, India

Jakarta, Indonesia

Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India

Krishnapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Kandla, Gujarat, India

Port of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

Mundra, Gujarat, India

Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Maputo, Mozambique

Mogadishu, Somalia

Port of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Paradeep, Odisha, India

Portland, Victoria, Australia

Port Hedland, Western Australia, Australia

Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Port Lincoln, South Australia, Australia

Port Louis, Mauritius

Port Pirie, South Australia, Australia

Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India

Richards Bay, South Africa

Mombasa, Kenya

Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Port of Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India

Gulf of Aden

Aden, Yemen

Berbera, Somalia

Mukalla, Yemen

Port of Djibouti, Djibouti

Arabian Sea

Gwadar Port, Gwadar, Balochistan, Pakistan

Karachi Port, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

Keti Bandar, Sindh, Pakistan

Port Qasim, Sindh, Pakistan

Port of Ormara, Ormara, Balochistan, Pakistan

Port of Pasni, Pasni, Balochistan, Pakistan

Mundra Port, Gujarat, India

New Mangalore port, Karnataka, India

INS Kadamba, Karnataka, India

Cochin Port, Kerala, India

Kandla Port, Gujarat, India

Mormug?o, Goa, India

Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Al Duqm Port & Drydock, Duqm, Al Wusta Region, Oman

Port of Salalah, Salalah, Dhofar Governorate, Oman

Port of Bushehr, Bushehr Province, Iran

Bandar-Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran

Bay of Bengal

Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, India

Chittagong Port, Chittagong Bangladesh

Ennore, Tamil Nadu, India

Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India

Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Mongla Port, Khulna, Bangladesh

Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu, India

Paradeep, Odisha, India

Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India

Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Gangavaram Port, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Dhamra, Odisha, India

Gopalpur, Odisha, India

Hooghly River

Haldia, West Bengal, India

Port of Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Strait of Malacca

Johor Port, Malaysia

Port Klang, Malaysia

Northport

West Port

Southpoint

Penang, Malaysia

Port of Singapore, Singapore

Tanjung Langsat Port, Johor, Malaysia

Port of Tanjung Pelepas, Malaysia

Gulf of Martaban

Yangon, Myanmar

Sea of Oman

Port of Chabahar, Iran

Port Sultan Qaboos, Muttrah, Muscat Governorate, Oman

Port of Sohar, Sohar, Dhofar Governorate, Oman

Khawr Fakkan, Sharjah, UAE

Gwadar Port, Balochistan, Pakistan

Chingari Port, Sindh, Pakistan

Persian Gulf

Bandar Abbas, Iran

Bandar Imam Khomeini, Iran

Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Doha, Qatar

Dubai, UAE

Hamriyah Port, Sharjah, UAE

Khafji, Saudi Arabia

Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Shuwaikh port, Kuwait

Jebel Ali, Dubai, UAE

Jubail, Saudi Arabia

Khalifa Bin Salman Port, Hidd, Bahrain

Mina Salman Port, Manama, Bahrain

Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia

Port Phillip

Geelong, Victoria, Australia

Port of Melbourne, Australia

Red Sea

Aqaba, Jordan

Ain Sokhna, Egypt

Asseb, Eritrea

Djibouti City, Djibouti

Dubai, Saudi Arabia

Port of Eilat, Israel

Farasan (city), Saudi Arabia

Hurghada, Egypt

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Jizan, Saudi Arabia

Massawa, Eritrea

Port Sudan, Sudan

Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

Suez, Egypt

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

Pacific Ocean

List of ports and harbours of the Pacific Ocean

Acapulco, Mexico

Auckland, New Zealand

Aurora, Philippines

Buenaventura, Colombia

Cabo San Lucas, Mexico

Cagayan Freeport, Philippines

Caldera, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

Callao, Peru

Corinto, Nicaragua

Port of Davao, Philippines

Port of Ensenada, Mexico

Eureka, California, United States on Humboldt Bay

Fraser Port, British Columbia, Canada

Guayaquil, Ecuador

Port of Hong Kong, People's Republic of China

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

Iquique, Chile

Port of Kobe, Japan

Legazpi, Philippines

Port of Long Beach, California, United States

Port of Los Angeles, California, United States

Lyttelton, New Zealand

Napier, New Zealand See also: Port of Napier

Mazatlán, Mexico

Panama City, Panama

Port Chalmers, New Zealand

Port Hueneme, California, United States

Puerto Montt, Chile

Port of Napier, New Zealand

Port of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada

Puerto Vallarta, Mexico

San Antonio, Chile

Port of San Diego, California, United States

Surigao, Philippines

Tabaco, Philippines

Tauranga, New Zealand

Timaru, New Zealand

Valparaíso, Chile

Vi?a del Mar, Chile

Wellington, New Zealand

Port of Yokohama, Japan

Sai Gon New Port, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

Columbia River

Port of Longview, Washington, United States

Port of Portland, Oregon, United States

Drake Passage, Beagle Channel and Strait of Magellan

Puerto Williams, Chile

Punta Arenas, Chile

Ushuaia, Argentina

Sacramento–San Joaquin rivers

Sacramento, California, United States

Gulf of Alaska

Port of Anchorage, Alaska, United States

Juneau, Alaska, United States

Arafura Sea

Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia

Bering Strait

Nome, Alaska, United States

Bohai Sea

Tianjin, People's Republic of China

Dongying, People's Republic of China

Qinhuangdao, People's Republic of China

Jinzhou, People's Republic of China

Yingkou, People's Republic of China

Hangu, People's Republic of China

Gulf of Carpentaria

Weipa, Queensland, Australia

Coral Sea

Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia

Port of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Gladstone, Queensland, Australia

Hay Point, Queensland, Australia

Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

Townsville, Queensland, Australia

East China Sea

Ningbo, People's Republic of China

Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Keelung, Taiwan

Gulf of Thailand

Bangkok, Thailand

Laem Chabang, Thailand

Sihanoukville Autonomous Port, Kingdom of Cambodia

Korea Bay

Dalian, People's Republic of China

Lushun/Lushunkou, People's Republic of China

Namp'o, North Korea

Sinǔiju, North Korea

Yangtze River / Changjiang

Chongqing, People's Republic of China

Port of Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Gulf of California

Port of Pichilingue/La Paz, Mexico (UNESCO Whale Sactuary and Bio-Reserve)

Sea of Japan

Port of Busan, South Korea

Rason, North Korea

Hungnam, North Korea

Gangneung, South Korea

Nakhodka, Russia

Vladivostok, Russia

Vostochny, Russia

Wonsan, North Korea

Puget Sound/Strait of Georgia

Port of Vancouver, Canada

Port of Bellingham, Washington, United States

Port of Everett, Washington, United States

Port of Seattle, Washington, United States

Surrey, British Columbia, Canada

Port of Tacoma, Washington, United States

Port of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

San Francisco Bay

Port of Oakland, California, United States

Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, California, United States

Richmond, California, United States

San Francisco, California, United States

Vallejo, California, United States

Stockton, California, United States

Pittsburg, California, United States

South China Sea

Batangas, Philippines

Cam Ranh, Vietnam

Cebu, Philippines

Da Nang, Vietnam

Hai Phong, Vietnam

Iloilo, Philippines

Ka-Ho, Macau (People's Republic of China)

Kemaman Port, Terengganu, Malaysia

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon port), Vietnam

Port of Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan)

Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Kuantan Port, Pahang, Malaysia

Kuching Port, Sarawak, Malaysia

Miri Port, Sarawak, Malaysia

Rejang Port, Sarawak, Malaysia

Bintulu Port, Sarawak, Malaysia

Kwai Chung, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China

Port of Manila, Philippines

Muara Port, Brunei

Puerto Princesa, Philippines

Port of Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Subic Bay, Philippines

Tuen Mun, Hong Kong People's Republic of China

Van Phong, Vietnam

Yantian, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Zamboanga, Philippini

Pearl River / Zhujiang

Port of Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Tasman Sea

Botany Bay (Port Botany), New South Wales, Australia* Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

Nelson, New Zealand

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia

New Plymouth, New Zealand

Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), New South Wales, Australia

Port Kembla, New South Wales, Australia

Yellow Sea

Haenam, South Korea

Port of Incheon, South Korea

Qingdao, People's Republic of China

Rizhao, People's Republic of China

Tianjin, People's Republic of China

Weihai, People's Republic of China


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